Wei Jingsheng Foundation News and Article Release Issue: A31-C2
魏京生基金会新闻与文章发布号:A31-C2
Release Date: October 10, 2003
发布日:2003年10月10日
Topic: How Long Will Education-Through-Labor Last (A survivor's ordeal)
标题:劳动教养还要"试行"多久 (作者:鲁北)

 



Editor's Note:

We appreciated our readers' feedback and hope to hear more. From the feedback of our issue A30-W6 (Wei Jingsheng calling for abolishing Education-Through-Labor System in China on VOA), I feel that we need to make a clarification.

The Education-Through-Labor (i.e. LaoJiao, or LaoDongJiaoYang in Chinese and sometimes translated as Reeducation-Through-Labor) is a different system than Reform-through-Labor (i.e. LaoGai, or LaoDongGaiZao), although one may consider them parallel. Generally speaking, LaoJiao is more widespread and arbitrary than LaoGai due to the fact it does not require "legal procedure", and it is still officially used by the Chinese government (the terminology of "LaoGai" was internally abandoned by the Chinese government in the mid 1990's, although the jail system is still effectively there).

In this issue, we introduce an article written by Lu Bei last month. Lu Bei himself is a victim of the Education-Through-Labor system. In his article, he briefs us on the history of Education-Through-Labor and some ordeals he and other victims of Education-through-Labor have gone through. Our thanks to Mr. Xu ShuiLiang, a long time democracy fighter, for supplying us this article.

Finally, I want to make an apology for my typo in our newsletter A30-W6. I have mistakenly typed my friend Zhang XiaoGang's name in the place of Sun ZhiGang (the victim who died under the Chinese "repatriation" system). My apology to XiaoGang and my thanks to Ms. Marie Holzman who kindly pointed it out.

-- Ciping Huang

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How Long Will Education-Through-Labor Last?(A survivor's ordeal)
By: Lu Bei


Today, the Chinese people have one wave after another of crying out for the Chinese government to abolish the systems that severely harm the rights of its citizens. On September 5, the Hong Kong government finally abandoned Article 23, which was not just a victory of the Hong Kong people, but also encouraged the mainland people's confidence to request the Chinese government to abolish its unfair systems.

According to a report, there is resolution proposed in GuangDong province that suggests the province try to abolish the Education-Through-Labor system that lacks legal justification. Everyone knows that the Education-Through-Labor system started in the 1950s, without the approval of the People's Congress. It was used as a way of an administrative punishment, when the administration has no right to exploit people's rights.

Let us examine the history and background of this Education-Through-Labor system. It emerged in the earlier period of the Chinese Communists' takeover the government, when it initiated and led the grand scale "Suppress Anti-revolutionary Movement". "Education-Through-Labor" was first mentioned in the decree issued by the Chinese Communist Party on August 25 of 1955, which detailed ways of "rounding up" in "LaoJiao camps" without sentence. This was the start of the Chinese version of "concentration camp". Shortly after, with the further development of the "Suppress Anti-revolutionary Movement", on January 10th of 1956 the Chinese Communist Party issued the "Decree for every city and every province to immediately establish Education-Through-Labor camps". The establishment of such a system was at the foundation to limit citizens' rights.

More decrees were issued later on with additional decisions by the Chinese government concerning the Education-Through-Labor camps that were called "Qiang-Lao-Suo", meaning "Forced Education-Through-Labor Administration Bureaus". There was no term limit for "bad elements" sentenced to these camps. Some people who were forced into the camps in the 1950's were not able to come out until 1970's. Some came out as a frozen bodies, and some of the bodies were left in the camps forever.

I was forced into one of these Education-Through-Labor camps on January 13, 1998, on the charge of "threatening the National Security". As soon as I got in there, several people surrounded me and started to beat me and took away my belongings. This action is the custom. This is the darkest quarter in China! In the night, jail heads waked everyone up, lining them up and beating them with wood sticks. The sad cries and screams were so loud! The policy was to have "prisoners take care of the prisoners" which the police are used to do. Before the beating, the police already had enough alcohol and over-stuffed meals with the jail-heads. The food and drinks were paid for by money the jail-heads took away from other prisoners.

For every season of every year, we had liquid "congee" made from flour and one piece of Chinese bread as breakfast. The dinners and lunches were even worse. I asked the police to improve it, but was told there is no money. How could it be? On the blackboard were displayed several weeks of our menu with much better items. But that was only used to show the supervisors.

One prisoner was very sick and had not eaten for several days. His two feet were swollen and he had to go to bathroom in bed. He continued to make weak noises begging to save his life. Yet the jail police claimed that the prisoner pretended to be sick. Finally one day, the other prisoners reported to the police that he was dying. The doctor came to his bed and proclaimed everything is fine and left the room immediately (probably because it smelled so bad). I asked the doctor, how is he? The doctor said the prisoner was just pretending to be sick and nothing was wrong with him. Less than ten minutes later, this prisoner's heart stopped beating.

There is a custom during the Education-Through-Labor time: if you bribe, you can get medical parole even if you are not sick. However, if you are a political prisoner or prisoner of conscience, then forget about it.

In my prison, there were about 120 FaLunGong practitioners. Each of them was locked up in one small room and was monitored by 4 or 5 Education-Through-Labor police, forcing them to write confessions and guarantees. If they refused, they were beaten, given no food, and not allowed to sleep. The FaLunGong practitioners who refused to write were really miserable - they were tied to a bed for several months. This is the true picture of Education-Through-Labor!

Although Education-Through-Labor was applied only to these people "who are not qualified for legal sentence", it is often even more severe than the punishment for those who received "legal sentence". The kind of inequality of "crime" and "punishment" is very unfair, very unreasonable and illegal as well.

Education-Through-Labor has led to the suppression of millions and millions people, from "1950's anti-rightists", to the "Big Leap Forward Movement", "People's Communes", "Criticize Lin & Kong", the 4.5 TianAnMen Tragedy, "Anti-rightists Overruling", "Cutting the Tails of Capitalists", "Anti-liberalists of the bourgeoisie", and "Suppressing FaLunGong".

For the last two decades, Chinese people have struggled to ask the end of such systems and a respect of law. Examples include "1979's Democracy Wall", "1989's Democracy Movement", and waves of founding opposition parties, workers' movements, and peasants' movements. Nevertheless, these righteous calls were not respected. Instead, people's lives were threatened, and their human rights were violated. In SanXi Province, Education-Through-Labor prisoner Hui XiaoDong was beaten to death. In LianLing Province's HuLu Island, Education-Through-Labor prisoner Zhang Bin was tortured, then beaten to death. The system of Education-Through-Labor has severely damaged citizens' rights.

It is time to stop this Education-Through-Labor. This type of system prevents China from becoming a society with freedom, democracy, law, compassion and tolerance, which are the basic elements of a civilized society.


(Note by Ciping Huang: I am only making a brief translation of this article. Please refer to the original article in Chinese in the second half of this release for more details of the Education-Through-Labor history and the author's account of life in an Education-Through-Labor camp.)

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中文版

Wei Jingsheng Foundation News and Article Release Issue: A31-C2
魏京生基金会新闻与文章发布号:A31-C2

Release Date: October 10, 2003
发布日:2003年10月10日

Topic: How Long Will Education-Through-Labor Last (A survivor's ordeal)
标题:劳动教养还要"试行"多久 (作者:鲁北)

Original Language Version: Chinese
(English at beginning, Chinese version at the end)
Please visit our website if you have problem to read Chinese in this issue
此号以中文为准(英文在前,中文在后)

魏京生基金会及中国民主运动海外联席会议以推动中国的人权与民主为己任。
我们欢迎任何形式的帮助与贡献。我们愿与世界上为人权与民主而奋斗的人们一起努力。

我们希望您能够帮助我们散发我们的资料。但请标明出处与我们的网址:
www.weijingsheng.org

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编者的话:

我们非常感谢读者的回应并希望听到更多。在此,我们需要对A30-W6期(魏京生在美国之音电视节目时事大家谈上呼吁废除中国劳教制度)的一些回应作一澄清。中国的劳教(即:劳动教养)制度与中国的劳改(即:劳动改造)制度是两个不同,但有所平行的制度。相比较,劳教不需要走所谓的法律程序。而劳改二字已逐渐被监狱所代替,尽管这只不过是换汤不换药而已。

此期,我们向您介绍鲁北有关劳教的文章。在此,谨向文章的提供者徐水良先生鸣谢。

最后需要向读者就A30-W6期的笔误道歉。在打孙志刚的名字时,我误将朋友张晓刚的名字输入了。特在此向晓刚表示歉意,并感谢为我指出错误的玛丽侯志明女士。

-- 黄慈萍

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劳动教养还要"试行"多久
-- 鲁北


当今中国人民呼吁中国政府废除严重侵害公民人身权利制度的呼声越来越高。9月5日港府取消国安法23条,这是香港人民的胜利,这无疑增强了大陆人民要求中国政府废除严重侵害公民人身权利制度的信心。

据《南方周末》9月4日报道,日前,广东省6位政协委员联名发起提案,建议广东省先行一步率先废除缺乏法律依据的劳动教养制度。众所周知,劳动教养制度是从1957年国务院颁布实施《关于劳动教养问题的决定》开始的,但现在劳动教养执法的直接依据却是由国务院转发、公安部制定的《劳动教养试行办法》。根据《立法法》规定,只有全国人大通过的法律才能限制公民的人身自由,而《劳动教养试行办法》只是一个部门的规章。劳动教养制度是以行政处罚的面目出现的,而行政机关根本就无权剥夺公民的人身自由。

让我们翻开历史,产生劳动教养制度的背景。中共掌握政权初期,中共中央领导和发动了大规模的镇压反革命运动。中共为了解决这场运动中清查出来的反革命分子和其他坏分子如何处理的问题,1955年8月25日,中共中央发出了《关于彻底肃清暗藏的反革命分子的指示》,劳动教养在此被首次提出。《关于彻底肃清暗藏的反革命分子的指示》中有一段这样写道,"对这次运动中清查出来的反革命和其他坏分子,除判处死刑的和因为罪状较轻、坦白彻底或因为立功而继续留用的以外,分两种办法处理。一种办法,是判刑后劳动改造。另一种办法,是不能判刑而政治上又不适于继续留用,放到社会上又会增加失业的,则进行劳动教养,就是虽不判刑,虽不完全失去自由,但亦应集中起来。"中国式的"集中营",就这样形成了。这是中共中央作出的第一个关于劳动教养的文件。此后不久,随着"肃反"运动的深入发展,1956年1月10日,中共中央又发出了《关于各省、市应立即筹办劳动教养机构的指示》,于是,全国开始了筹办劳动教养机构的各项准备工作。这就够了!够了!!劳动教养制度的建立就是以侵害公民人身权利作为起点的。

1957年8月3日,国务院公布《关于劳动教养问题的决定》。1979年12月5日,国务院公布《国务院关于劳动教养的补充规定》。1982年1月21日,国务院关于转发公安部《劳动教养试行办法》。劳动教养管理所,简称"劳教所"。在1979年以前,劳教所称之谓"强劳所"(即强制劳动教养管理所)。地、富、反、坏、右分子一旦进入"强劳所"是没有期限的,有的20世纪50年代进去,到了70年代出来,有的出来的只是僵硬的躯体,有的连躯体永久地留在了"强劳所"。

我与1998年1月13日,被市局送进了劳教所,罪名是"危害国家安全罪"。当我进入房间,4、5个劳教人员围着我,随后就是"开戏"(打我),然后,把我身上的钱和烟拿走,这已是这里的惯例。于是,干警将我调到另一个房间,离走廊铁门最近的房间,铁门外就是干警的办公室。看守所糟吧,89年我在看守所整整被关了两年,没想到劳教所比看守所还要糟!这是中国最黑暗的角落之一。这一天晚上,劳教人员刚刚躺下,几个狱霸把每个房间的劳教人员都叫了起来,全部站在走廊两侧。我不知发生了什么事,我就动身起来,谁知其中一个狱霸示意我躺下,不要起来,大概是狱霸得到了干警的嘱咐。狱霸手里拿着木棍,向站在走廊两侧的劳教人员用木棍抽打。我躺在床上,他们的惨叫声不时从走廊传来。这就是人们常说的犯人管犯人,干警们已经习惯了,在这之前干警们已与狱霸开怀敞饮,酒足饭饱,而钱都是狱霸从劳教人员身上搜刮而来。

劳教人员的一日三餐,早餐是用面粉做的稀粥,劳教人员称之谓"喝雄",几块发了臭的烂咸菜,一个馒头,一年四季都是如此;中午、晚上要么水煮(放些盐)烂罗卜、烂冬瓜、烂烂白菜、烂土豆,吃起来又苦又咸。食堂一旦剩下这些菜,通常拿去喂猪。我多次向干警提出改善生活,干警却说没有钱,上面也不拨款。照目前劳教人员的生活是否吃够标准、吃熟、吃热、吃得卫生呢?伙食帐目也不公开,那么,伙食费有没有克扣呢?食堂黑板上例着数周的采谱,主食还有包子、花卷等,那都是给上面来检查看的。劳教所造假帐,竟然下放到劳教人员,发给劳教人员工资就是两本帐。一本帐是每月劳教人员实发几块钱的工资,劳教人员签个名。另一
本帐是劳教人员虚发的工资,也就是拿不到的工资,再由劳教人员签个名,这本帐是应付上面的检查。克扣的钱都到哪里去了呢?

有一名劳教人员病的很厉害,几天没有吃饭了,两只脚肿肿的,大、小便都是在床上,不时从嘴里发出救命的微弱呼声。但干警仍说他是装病,有一天,当其他劳教人员向干警报告他不行了,医生来到他床前,号脉后却
说,没事,心跳正常。转身出来,也许房间的气味使他受不了。我问他怎么样?他说,没事,装病。没过十分钟,这位劳教人员停止了心跳。事后中队长在办公室反复与我解释,中队已通知他家属,他的家属都不来,不
管他。人关在你们这里,你们不救谁救得了他呢?

时间一天一天地熬,我也搞起"特殊"。让家人带些面条,在干警办公室煮上一锅面条,与同室劳教人员一起吃,也算改善生活吧。

劳动教养还有个惯例,只要你花上钱,你就可以保外就医(不管你有没有病);你还可以所外执行(上述两项都与政治、良心犯无缘)。

当我解教之前,我又见到了那些"法轮功"学员,我所在的劳教所,当时,关押"法轮功"学员120人。当我再次与他们面谈时,他们说自己都写了悔过书、保证书。我问为什么?他们说,干警把我们单独一个一个关在北面那个小屋里,有4、5个劳教人员看着,不写就打,不写就不让吃饭,不写就不让睡觉。我问是不是都写了,他们说,还有两个人没写。但他们的遭遇更惨,已被绑在"龙床"上几个月了。这就是劳教所的真实写照,想赖是赖不掉的!

《劳动教养试行办法》规定的教养对象"不够刑事处分的"人,但劳动教养有时比"刑事处分"更加严厉。"不够刑事处分的"所受的惩罚反而比"刑事处罚"还要严重;这种罪与罚的不对等,其不公正、不合理、不合法是显而易见的。在劳动教养历史实施中,"57年反右"、"大跃进"、"人民公社"、"批林批孔"、"4、5天安门惨案"、"反击右倾翻案风"、"割资本主义尾巴"、"反资产阶级自由化"、"镇压法轮功",千千万万、万万千千的人遭到迫害送去劳动教养。近二十年来中国人民的正义抗争,如"79民主墙"、"89学潮"、"89民运"、"64革命"、"98组党"、"工潮农潮"人民要求依法治国,废除严重侵害公民人身权利的制度。人民正义的呼声,不但没有得到尊重。反而,许多人生命的威胁依然存在,天赋人权依然受到威胁。在陕西省戒毒劳教所,劳教人员惠晓东被同室另两名劳教人员殴打致死。辽宁省葫芦岛劳教人员张斌被折磨、殴打致死。劳动教养这一严重侵害公民人身权利的制度仍然威胁着中国人民。

香港取消国安法23条,是香港人民7、1革命行动的胜利。它的意义就在于阻止了大陆恶法向香港漫延。就在同一时间段,广东省6位政协委员联名发起提案,建议广东省先行一步,率先废除缺乏法律依据的劳动教养制度。我不赞同广东省劳教局一位人士的话:"劳教制度是国务院、公安部制定的,广东省无权废除。"可以先取消劳教场所吗。1982年1月21日,国务院关于转发公安部《劳动教养试行办法》第二章第七条"省、自治区、直辖市和大中城市的劳动教养场所的设置,由省、自治区、直辖市人民政府根据需要确定。劳动教养管理场所的设置、撤销,须报公安部备案。"广东省有权可先将其场所撤销。如果由制定的机关自行废止《劳动教养试行办法》,当然更好,这也是最佳的途径。《劳动教养试行办法》已"试行"二十多年了,这种既缺乏法律依据,又严重侵害公民人身权利的制度该结束了,不该再继续"试行"下去了。人民期盼着恶法的废除,正是恶法的存在,遏制了中国进入自由、民主、法治、博爱、宽容的社会,自由、民主、法治、博爱、宽容是天赋人权人类文明社会最基本的标的。


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